Recent studies on cannabinoid-induced analgesia implicate certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as a therapeutic target along with metabotropic cannabinoid receptors. Although TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1)-selective cannabinoids, such as (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone (WIN55,212), are effective at desensitizing TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), there is a gap in knowledge in understanding the opposite situation, namely whether TRPV1-selective cannabinoids desensitize TRPA1. We selected the TRPV1-specific synthetic cannabinoid, arachidonoyl-2 chloroethanolamine (ACEA), to study peripheral antihyperalgesic properties because ACEA is known to activate TRPV1. Hence, we used in vitro as well as in vivo assays to evaluate the following: 1) the effects of ACEA on the TRPA1-selective agonist, mustard oil (MO), for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from rat hindpaw skin in vitro; 2) the effects of a peripherally selective dose of ACEA on MO-induced nocifensive behavior in vivo; and 3) the effects of five ACEA-insensitive TRPV1 mutations on ACEA-inhibition of MO-evoked calcium accumulation using a Chinese hamster ovary cell expression system. Our results demonstrate that 1) ACEA significantly attenuated (∼40%) MO-evoked CGRP release from rat hindpaw skin, and this effect was not antagonized by the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine; 2) ACEA significantly inhibited (∼40%) MO-induced nocifensive behavior in wild-type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice; and 3) all TRPV1 mutations insensitive to ACEA lacked the ability to inhibit MO-evoked calcium accumulation in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with TRPV1 and TRPA1. Taken together, the results indicate that a TRPV1-selective cannabinoid, ACEA, inhibits MO-evoked responses via a TRPV1-dependent mechanism. This study strengthens the hypothesis that cannabinoids mediate their peripheral analgesic properties, at least in part, via the TRP channels.
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse [Grant DA019585]; the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research [Grants DE017696, DE019311]; and the National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources [Grant U54-RR02438] (Clinical Translational Science Award).
Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org.
- transient receptor potential
- (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone
- arachidonoyl-2 chloroethanolamine
- cannabinoid receptor subtype 1
- calcitonin gene-related peptide
- wild type
- immunoreactive CGRP
- Chinese hamster ovary
- mustard oil
- methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solution
- TRP vanilloid
- TRP ankyrin.
- Received September 17, 2010.
- Accepted March 25, 2011.
- Copyright © 2011 The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics