TABLE 1

Microdomain localization and receptor coupling of mammalian AC isoforms

AC IsoformMicrodomain LocalizationGPCR CouplingSystems StudiedNotes
AC1Lipid raftβ2ARVascular smooth muscle cellsAC1 overexpression used to demonstrate GPCR coupling
AC2NonraftEP2/4RAirway smooth muscle cellsAC2 overexpression used to demonstrate GPCR coupling
AC3Lipid raftβ2AR, D1R glucagonHEK-293Glucagon receptors were exogenously expressed
AC4NonraftUnknownUnknown
AC5Lipid raftβ1AR, β2AR, A2ARCardiac myocytes, hepatocytesD5R couple to AC5 in nonrafts of renal tubule cells
AC6Lipid raftβ1AR, β2AR, IPR, D1, A2AR, PAC1HEK-293, cardiac myocytes, airway and GI smooth muscle cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiac fibroblasts, lung fibroblasts, hepatocytes, plateletsAC6 overexpression, knockdown, and antibody inactivation have been used to determine GPCR-AC6 coupling
AC7NonraftD1R-EP1RHEK-293Regulation of AC7 by D1R is via Gβγ and requires EP1R
AC8Lipid raftNoneHEK-293, pancreatic cells, hippocampal neuronsStimulated by store-operated and L-type calcium channels
AC9NonraftUnknownUnknown