Table 1

GRK and arrestin knockout mice phenotypes and target GPCRs

GRKTarget GPCRPhenotypeReference
GRK1RhodopsinProlonged response of retinal cells to light Lyubarsky et al. (2000)
Light-dependent retinal degeneration Chen et al. (1999)
GRK2UnknownEmbryonic lethality; hypoplasia of myocardium Jaber et al. (1996)
GRK2(−/+)β12-AREnhanced cardiac contractility to isoproterenol Rockman et al. (1998)
GRK3Odorant receptorOlfactory supersensitivity Peppel et al. (1997)
MuscarinicEnhanced airway response to methacholine Walker et al. (1999)
GRK5M2 muscarinicEnhanced hypothermia, hypoactivity, central cholinergic supersensitivity Gainetdinov et al. (1999)
D1dopamineNone Gainetdinov et al. (1999)
5-HT1ANone Gainetdinov et al. (1999)
CXCR4None Fong et al. (2002)
GRK6CXCR4Impaired lymphocyte chemotaxis Fong et al. (2002)
ArrestinRhodopsinProlonged photoresponse in rods of retina Xu  et  al.  (1997)
β-Arrestin 1β12-AREnhanced contractility in response to isoproterenol Conner et al. (1997)
β-Arrestin 2μ-OpioidPotentiation and prolongation of morphine-induced analgesia Bohn et al. (1999)
Impaired development of morphine-induced tolerance Bohn et al. (2000)
CXCR4Impaired lymphocyte chemotaxis Fong et al. (2002)

It is important to note that the phenotype of the knockout animals have been tested only by the stimulation of the listed GPCRs. The number of other GPCRs affected by the GRK and arrestin gene deletions is unknown. No phenotype indicates that stimulation of the listed GPCR was carried out and the response was not different from wild type animals.

    • 5-HT1A, 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor.