TABLE 1

Summary of studies showing enhanced response of cytotoxic chemotherapy in combination with pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy

Therapeutic AgentModelAutophagy InhibitionResponseReference
TemozolomideHuman malignant glioma cell lines3-MethyladenineDecreased cytotoxicityKanzawa et al., 2004
Bafilomycin AIncreased cytotoxicity
CyclophosphamideMurine Myc-induced lymphoma cancerChloroquineIncreased antitumor responseAmaravadi et al., 2007
5-FluorouracilHuman colon cancer cell lines3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisLi et al., 2009
5-FluorouracilHuman colon cancer cell lines and xenograftIncreased cytotoxicityLi et al., 2010
5-FluorouracilHuman colon cancer cell line (HT29)ChloroquineIncreased cytotoxicitySasaki et al., 2010
5-FluorouracilHuman hepatic carcinoma cell lines3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisGuo et al., 2012
5-FluorouracilMurine colon cancer cell line and tumor xenograftChloroquineIncreased apoptosisSasaki et al., 2012
5-FluorouracilHuman NSCLC cell line (A549)3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisPan et al., 2013
CisplatinEsophageal SSC cell line (EC9706)3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisLiu et al., 2011a
CisplatinHuman cholangiocarcinoma cell lines3-MethyladenineIncreased cytotoxicityHou et al., 2011
Wortmannin
CisplatinHuman cervical cancer cell line (HeLa)3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisXu et al., 2012
Chloroquine
CisplatinHuman hepatic carcinoma cell lines3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisGuo et al., 2012
CisplatinLaryngeal cancer cells (Hep-2)3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisKang et al., 2012
CisplatinHuman NSLC cell line (A549)3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisLiu et al., 2013
OxaliplatinHuman colon cancer cell lines and xenograftChloroquineIncreased cytotoxicity and tumor controlSelvakumaran et al., 2013
PaclitaxelHuman NSLC cell line (A549)3-MethyladenineIncreased apoptosisLiu et al., 2013
EtoposideHuman hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2)3-MethyladenineIncreased cytotoxicityXie et al., 2011
DoxorubicinHuman multiple myeloma cell lines, patient-derived multiple myeloma cells, human plasmacytoma xenograftHydroxychloroquineIncreased apoptosisPan et al., 2011
3-Methyladenine
EpirubicinHuman breast cancer cell line (MCF7)Bafilomycin AIncreased apoptosisSun et al., 2011
MelphalanHuman multiple myeloma cell lines, patient-derived multiple myeloma cells, human plasmacytoma xenograftHydroxychloroquineIncreased apoptosisPan et al., 2011
3-Methyladenine
TopotecanHuman NSLC cell line (A549)ChloroquineIncreased cytotoxicityWang et al., 2011
CamptothecinHuman breast cancer cell linesWortmanninIncreased apoptosis in selective cell linesAbedin et al., 2007
3-Methlyadenine
Bafilomycin A