TABLE 1

Effect of PDZ proteins on GPCR trafficking

PDZ ProteinTrafficking FunctionGPCRReference
PSD-95↓ Endocytosisβ1AR, 5-HT2ARHu et al., 2000; Xia et al., 2003
↑ RecyclingD1RSun et al., 2009
↑ Membrane localizationGPR30Akama et al., 2013; Broselid et al., 2014
↑ Endocytosis5-HT2CR, D1RGavarini et al., 2006; Zhang et al., 2007b
SAP97↓ EndocytosisCRFR1, 5-HT2ARDunn et al., 2013, 2014
↑ Recyclingβ1ARGardner et al., 2007
SAP102↓ MobilityA2A receptorThurner et al., 2014
MPP3↑ Membrane localization5-HT2CRGavarini et al., 2006
MAGI-2↓ EndocytosisVPAC1Gee et al., 2009
↑ Endocytosisβ1ARXu et al., 2001
↑ Membrane localizationmGluR1aSugi et al., 2007
NHERF1↓ Endocytosisβ2AR, TPβRochdi and Parent, 2003; Wang et al., 2007
↑ Recyclingβ2AR, human κ opioid receptorCao et al., 1999; Li et al., 2002
↑ Membrane localizationSSTR5, PTH1RWheeler et al., 2008; Bauch et al., 2014
↑ Microvilli localizationSerotonin 4A receptorJoubert et al., 2004
↑ Cytoskeletal localizationFrizzled 4Wheeler et al., 2011
↑ EndocytosisCCR5, platelet-activating factor receptor, P2Y12RHammad et al., 2010; Dupré et al., 2012; Nisar et al., 2012
PDZK1↓ Endocytosis5-HT2ARWalther et al., 2015
↑ Membrane localizationhIPRTurner et al., 2011
PDZK2↑ Membrane localizationhIPRReid et al., 2012
Shank1↑ ClusteringmGluR5, CL1Tu et al., 1999; Tobaben et al., 2000
Spinophilin↓ Endocytosisα2ARBrady et al., 2003
↑ EndocytosisμORCharlton et al., 2008
MUPP1↑ Membrane localization5-HT2ARJones et al., 2009
↑ Tight junction localizationSSTR3Liew et al., 2009
Tamalin↑ Membrane localizationmGluR1Kitano et al., 2002; Sugi et al., 2007
↑ Neurite localizationmGluR5Kitano et al., 2002
Syntrophins↑ Membrane localizationα1DARChen et al., 2006; Lyssand et al., 2008, 2011
PICK1↑ Intracellular clusteringProlactin-releasing peptide receptorLin et al., 2001; Madsen et al., 2012
↓ RecyclingGrowth hormone–releasing hormone receptorKatsushima et al., 2013
Syntenin-1↑ Membrane localizationG protein–coupled receptor 37 (endothelin receptor type B-like)Dunham et al., 2009
SNX27↑ Recyclingβ2AR, β1AR, SSTR5Lauffer et al., 2010; Temkin et al., 2011; Nakagawa and Asahi, 2013; Bauch et al., 2014
GIPC↑ Endosome/Golgi localizationD2R, dopamine 3 receptorJeanneteau et al., 2004
↑ Trafficking to early endosomeLPA1RVarsano et al., 2012
↑ Membrane stabilityHuman luteinizing hormone receptorHirakawa et al., 2003
CAL↓ Membrane localizationβ1AR, SSTR5He et al., 2004; Bauch et al., 2014; Koliwer et al., 2015
↓ Recyclingβ1ARKoliwer et al., 2015
↑ Golgi localizationSSTR5Wente et al., 2005; Bauch et al., 2014