TABLE 2

Summary of analytical techniques for measurement of DOX and doxorubicinol (DOXL) blood concentrations for TDM

Method of MeasurementMeasured VariableLower Limit of Quantification
HPLC with fluorescence detection (Fogli et al., 1999)Daunorubicin, idarubicin, DOX, epirubicin, and their 13-dihydro metabolites in human plasma samples0.4 ng/ml
Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (Mazzucchelli et al., 2017)Concentration of DOX and DOXL in mouse plasma, liver, kidney, tumor, urinePlasma: 0.04 (DOX); 0.24 (DOXL)
Liver: 0.12 (DOX); 0.3 (DOXL)
Kidney: 0.43 (DOX); 0.32 (DOXL)
Tumor: 0.52 (DOX); 0.35 (DOXL)
Urine: 0.025 (DOX); 0.09 (DOXL)
Ultra-HPLC fluorescence (PĂ©rez-Blanco et al., 2014)Concentrations of DOX and DOXL in human plasmaDOX = 8 ng/ml
DOXL = 3 ng/ml
Radionuclide angiocardiography (Lu, 2005; Panjrath and Jain, 2006)Measurement of LVEFNot applicable
Myocardial imaging using In-111-antimyosin antibody (Hiroe et al., 1992)Uptake of In-111-antimyosin antibody in myocardium by immunoscintigraphy in rats to evaluate myocardial damageNot applicable
123I-MIBG scintigraphy (Lekakis et al., 1996)Cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake to generate adrenergic neuronal imaging in doxorubicin-treated patientsNot applicable
Scintigraphic detection of apoptosis (Bennink et al., 2004)Assessment of early apoptosis using annexin V scintigraphy in ratsNot applicable