TABLE 1

List of HBPs with potential of using in the COVID-19 therapeutics development

Peptide NamePeptide SequenceHeparin BindingAmyloid BindingViral Entry Inhibition in Cell CulturesAmyloid Uptake InhibitionManaging Viral Infection in Animal Models
P5GGGYSKAQKAQAKQAK QAQKAQKAQAKQAKQYes (Martin et al., 2013, 2014; Wall et al., 2011, 2012, 2013a,b)Yes (Martin et al., 2013, 2014; Wall et al., 2011, 2012, 2013a,b)Yes (Dogra et al., 2015; Jackson et al., 2019)Not testedNot tested
P5 + 14GGGYSKAQKAQAKQAK QAQKAQKAQAKQAKQA QKAQKAQAKQAKQYes (Wall et al., 2015, 2017, 2019; Kennel et al., 2016a; Martin et al., 2016; Stuckey et al., 2020)Yes (Wall et al., 2015, 2017, 2019; Kennel et al., 2016a; Martin et al., 2016; Stuckey et al., 2020)Yes (Dogra et al., 2015; Jackson et al., 2019)Yes (Tavassoly et al., 2020)Unable to manage infection in animal models (Jackson et al., 2019) because of lack of endosomal escape
(P5R)D[GGGYSRAQRAQARQAR QAQRAQRAQARQARQ]DYes (Pitt et al., 2016)Yes (Pitt et al., 2016)Yes (Pitt et al., 2016)Not testedUnable to manage infection in animal models (Pitt et al., 2016) because of lack of endosomal escape
CRM-197NCBI accession number: 1007216AYes (Knittel et al., 2015)Not testedNot testedUnpublished data (O.T.)It is a carrier protein in some FDA-approved vaccines against viral and bacterial infections
Conjugate of P5 + 14 and CRM-197Proposed in this paperIt is expected to manage infection in animal models because CRM-197 functionalize the HBP to escape endosomes
  • FDA, Food and Drug Administration; NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information.