TABLE 1

Structural details of tested glycosides

Substitution pattern is derived from Fig. 1C. Maximum response was defined at 1 mM ATP. To calculate the EC50 ratio, the average EC50 value for ATP + vehicle was used from each set of experiments. Average EC50 value is shown with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses.

GlycosideATP EC50 (μM)EC50 ratioMaximum response (fold increase)Substitution pattern
R1 (C-3)R2 (C-6)R3 (C-20)
Ginsenoside-CK61.6 (43.1 to 80.1) *2.72.4–4.4-OH-glc
Ginsenoside-F1182.3 (136.8 to 227.9)1.11.46-OH-OH-glc
Ginsenoside-F235.3 (15.1 to 55.4) *5.42.23-glc-glc
Ginsenoside-20(S)-Rh280.0 (54.0 to 105.9) *1.82.6-glc-OH
Ginsenoside-20(R)-Rh2169.7 (110.4 to 228.9)0.81.53-glc-OH
Daucosterol258.5 (172.6 to 344.4)0.71.33-glc
Ouabain133.4 (102.8 to 163.9)1.11.08-rhabutyrolactone
Scilliroside112.6 (78.2 to 147.1)1.31.07-glc-OAc2-pyrone
Stevenleaf (gypenoside IX)184.2 (71.2 to 297.1)0.71.64-glc-glc-xyl
Gypenoside XVII79.9 (56.0 to 103.8) *2.42.0-glc-glc-glc
Esculentoside A165.5 (85.2 to 245.8)0.80.94-xyl-glc-COOMe
Ginsenoside-20(S)-Rg378.7 (53.6 to 103.8) *1.82.4-glc-glc-OH
Ginsenoside-20(R)-Rg3146.0 (116.0 to 176.0)1.00.94-glc-glc-OH
Ginsenoside-Rd57.7 (42.4 to 72.9) *3.82.77-glc-glc-glc
Ginsenoside-Rb1175.9 (55.6 to 296.2)1.21.96-glc-glc-glc-glc
Stevioside189.6 (141.2 to 238.0)1.0-glc-glc-glc
Glycyrrhizic acidn.dn.dn.d-glcA-glcA-COOH
Saikosaponin AN.An.dN.A-fuc-glc
Gypenoside XLIX213.1 (209.3 to 216.9)0.91.9-rha-ara-xyl-glc
Mogroside Vn.dn.dn.d-glc-glc-glc-glc-glc
SolasonineN.An.dN.A-rha-gal-glc
SolanineN.An.dN.A-rha-gal-glc
  • N.A., not applicable; n.d., not determined. Carbohydrate groups: -ara; arabinose, -fuc; fucose, -gal; galactose, -glc; glucose, -glcA; glucuronic acid, -rha; rhamnose, -xyl; xylose.

  • *P < 0.05 from one-way ANOVA with Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test.